Murdo J. MacLeod suggests that the terms cacique and caudillo "either require further scrutiny or, perhaps, they have become so stretched by the diversity of explanations and processes packed into them that they have become somewhat empty generalizations". Carlos Octavio Bunge, "Caciquismo in Our America" (1918), in Hugh M. Hamill, ed. An extension of the term cacique, caciquismo ("boss rule") can refer to a political system dominated by the power of local political bosses, the caciques. In central Mexico in the colonial era, the Spanish more successfully utilized the leaders of the much more hierarchically organized indigenous peoples to function as intermediaries in the system of colonial rule. In, Hoekstra, Rik. " In a 1769 appeal to the Viceroy of New Spain by a cacique family for restoration of its privileges, they were enumerated: that the cacique should be seated separately from commoners at public functions; he was excused from serving in town government; he was exempted from tribute and other exactions; he was excused from Sunday worship and payments of the half real; his servants were not liable for community labor; he was exempt from incarceration for debt and his property from sequestration; he could be imprisoned for serious crime but not jailed in the public jail; the caciques' names were to be listed among the nobles in official registers; and "all these privileges are to apply equally to the caciques' wives and widows."  In, Friedrich, Paul. "“Pure and Noble Indians, Untainted by Inferior Idolatrous Races”: Native Elites and the Discourse of Blood Purity in Late Colonial Mexico. "Mixteca cacicas: Status, wealth, and the political accommodations of the native elite women in early colonial Oaxaca" in, Villella, Peter B.  One Argentine intellectual, Carlos Octavio Bunge viewed caciquismo as emerging from anarchy and political disruption and then evolving into a "pacific" form of "civilized caciquismo", such as Mexico's Porfirio Díaz (r. "Galicia still suffers from this anachronistic caste of caciques.  Some caciques had entailed estates called cacicazgos. "A Colonial Cacicazgo: The Mendozas of Seventeenth-Century Tepexi de la Seda. A cacique translates to "king" or "prince" of an indigenous group, derived from the Taíno word kasike for the pre-Columbian tribal chiefs in the Bahamas, the Greater Antilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles. Ramírez, Susan, "The 'Dueños de Indios': Thoughts on the Consequences of the Shifting Bases of Power of the 'Curaca de los Viejos' Under the Spanish in Sixteenth-Century Peru,", Roniger, Luis, "Caciquismo and Coronelismo: Contextual Dimensions of Patron Brokerage in Mexico and Brazil. 164-65. The U.S. administration subsequently introduced many commercial, political and administrative reforms. Monuments Delegation of Yara, 1999". ", Wood, Stephanie. In Hispanic and Lusophone countries, the term also has come to mean a political boss or leader who exercises significant power in the political system known as caciquismo. Spaniards extended the usage of cacique to refer to leaders at the town or village level in virtually all indigenous groups in Spanish America.  The Spanish recognized the indigenous nobility as nobles within newly established colonial system, and caciques' status along with their families was reinforced by their being allowed to hold the Spanish noble honorific don and doña. At the base of the monument to Hatuey the historical plaque reads: "To the memory of Chief Hatuey, unforgettable native, precursor of the Cuban fight for freedom, he offered his life, glorifying his ideals while tormented by the flames on 2/2/1512.  The establishment of Spanish-style town government [cabildos] was used as a mechanism to replace traditional rule. The hierarchy and nomenclature of indigenous leadership there might survive internally within communities, but the Spaniards' designation of caciques did not necessarily correspond to the hereditary indigenous system of leadership. "Poder local, poder regional: perspectivas socio-antropológica." YouTube; Benny Sadel Homenaje Exitos HD - Duration: 50:34. In the post-independence period in Mexico, the term retained its meaning of "indigenous" leaders, but also took on a more general usage of a "local" or "regional" leader as well. The records of many of these Mexican estates are held in the Mexican national archives in a section Vínculos ("entails"). ... EL VARON DE LA BACHATA MIX1 bachata clasica. “A Cacicazgo in the Seventeenth Century: The Case of Xochimilco” In, de la Peña, Guillermo. (FRI, MARCH 27TH) Llega El Cacique de la Bachata RAULIN RODRIGUEZ @ *JOES LIVE* (Rosemont) On Sale @ https://bit.ly/39VmmvW His importance in the tribe was determined by the size of his tribe rather than his skills in warfare since the Taínos were mostly a peaceable culture. , Murdo J. MacLeod, "Cacique, Caciquismo" in. "The Legitimacy of a Cacique". However, the local traditional Filipino elites, being better educated and better connected than much of the local population, were often able to take advantage of the changes to bolster their positions. With Mexican independence in 1821, the special privileges of colonial-era caciques were abolished.. Many even owned Black slaves. In the Philippines, the term cacique democracy was coined by Benedict Anderson. 1876-1911). " Spanish strongman El Caudillo Francisco Franco (1892-1975) was born in Ferrol in Galicia. 50+ videos Play all Mix - Raulin Rodriguez, Bachata del Cacique.  Kuraka rebellions were made since the beginning of the Spanish colonial rule, kurakas from different backgrounds and places of the Andes led uprisings on multiple occasions, being the Tupac Amaru II rebellion, which came after 250 years of colonial rule, the largest of them and the major rebellion in the history of Spain's American empire, nevertheless kuraka revolts would continue years and decades after Tupac Amaru II's uprising such as the Tupac Katari uprising or the Mateo Pumakawa insurrection made during the South American Wars of Independence.
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